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Judicial system

The judicial system of the Republic of Belarus comprises of the Constitutional Court, general courts and economic courts.

The Constitutional Court considers issues on the adequacy of regulatory legal acts of the Republic of Belarus to the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, of the international legal acts ratified by the Republic of Belarus to the laws of the Republic of Belarus and the decrees of the President of the Republic of Belarus.

The system of general courts includes:

  • district (city) and interpost military courts;
  • regional and Minsk city courts, as well as the Belarusian Military Court;
  • the Supreme Court of the Republic of Belarus.

Their responsibilities include the review of the following types of cases:

  • criminal cases;
  • civil cases on disputes arising from civil, family, labor, housing, land and other relations, provided that at least one of the parties is an individual;
  • cases involving the creation, legal protection and use of intellectual property, regardless of the parties to the dispute (considered exclusively by the judicial board for intellectual property of the Supreme Court);
  • cases involving legal entities only in cases expressly provided for by the laws of the Republic of Belarus, decrees and orders of the President of the Republic of Belarus.

Interpost military courts and the Belarusian Military Court review civil cases for claims arising from military service relations, as well as criminal cases on all crimes committed by persons who have the status of military men.

The system of economic courts includes:

  • the economic courts of the regions and Minsk;
  • the Supreme Economic Court of the Republic of Belarus.

The economic courts review:

  • cases on economic (business) disputes between legal entities and individual entrepreneurs;
  • matters related to carrying out entrepreneurial and other economic activities;
  • cases on appealing non-normative legal acts, actions (inactions) of state authorities that violate the rights of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs in entrepreneurial and other economic activities;
  • cases on recognition and enforcement of judgments of foreign courts, including arbitration, on economic disputes;
  • cases involving the Republic of Belarus, the administrative-territorial units of the Republic of Belarus, government bodies, local government bodies, organizations that are not legal entities, officials and citizens only in cases expressly provided for by the laws of the Republic of Belarus, decrees and orders of the President of the Republic of Belarus.